EMP: Its effects to Electronic products and how to protect them

EMP intrusion is damaging and is disruptive to electronic materials thereby with a high level of energy, a powerful EMP emerges out which can cause a thunderbolt strike that damages most of the physical bodies like buildings, aircraft, and so on. Many weapons have been developed to repair the damage of such high-energy and powerful EMP.

Nuclear blast generally triggers an electromagnetic pulse that disrupts and destroys the electronics that are miles far away. This nuclear distraction is an explosion of electromagnetic radiation. This results in rapid destruction within a couple of electronic and electric infrastructures over a wide range of high voltage surge and current. It indirectly results in a nuclear explosion.

EMP pulse is reasonably complex and is divided into three segment pulses:

  1. E1 Pulse

In the upper atmosphere when a gamma radiation is observed from a blast of atoms, an E1 pulse is occured. It is generally the fastest segment in the nuclear EMP. It is powerful but small.

When E1 pulse passes through the earth magnetic field, it generates microwaves. With a high surge power, these waves are transmitted to the surface of the earth. However, with this, it produces high-voltages of power within electrical conductors. The E1 pulse may damage computers and electronic gadgets.


  1. E2 Pulse

It is most comparable with the pulse generated while lightning strikes. For the most of our life, our nation is already prepared for such type of E2 pulses. So it may be treated as the most dangerous one.


  1. E3 Pulse

E3 pulse is quite different when compared with E1 and E2, it is slower and doesn’t make huge and varied damage. It is similar to geomagnetic storms that are caused by the solar flare. Powerful currents will be generated that cause damages to transformers and power lines like critical infrastructures.

The following are the effects of electromagnetic pulse:

Effects of EMP:

  1. Especially, minor EMP events and pulse trains cause electrical noises and effect on susceptible devices. The instances are -Stripes on the TV screen, crackles over radio sets are visible due to gasoline ignitions systems occurred in the 20th century.
  2. High-induced EMP produces a spark from an electrostatic discharge from vehicles. These sparks cause fuel-air explosions. Many Laws were proposed to bring out the variant change in vehicle manufacturers over suppressors.
  3. High currents and voltages are disrupted or permanently damaged due to EMP.
  4. They may also effect magnetic materials and damage the hard drives of any computer irrespective of size, charge, and even if they are shielded by metal casings.
  5. Due to the high magnetic field generated due to high-voltage currents, many buildings, trees, aircraft are damaged. An indirect current will be proposed that reflects heating of electrical wires and thereby causes great damage.


There are many efforts made by scientists and many great people to maximize these kinds of explosions that cause huge damage to the electronic products. Below are a few of them.


Protection and Precautions to be taken:

To identify the damage and explosion before the attack is a bit risky and difficult process. But to make sure whether the attack is man-made or natural, there are a few ways to predict them.

So, this lets a way to focus on the susceptibility of new types of equipment for protecting and hardening the effects of EMP. Other than weapons there are a few measures that help in the prevention of such emission of energy pulses.

EMC(Electromagnetic Compatibility) is a discipline to ensure right equipment to the presence of EMP and different RP threats.

For that, the following methods can be helpful:

  1. Faraday cage

It is a name after Michael Faraday, who discovered shielding properties against many electromagnetic waves. It is easy to build Faraday cages with low costs that resemble the ones provided by the government. It just requires some household things. There are some companies who make Faraday Cage for Sale. Approach them to find them irrespective of wasting time.

The cage protects by preventing electromagnetic pulse allowing it inside. It uses a copper mesh and a solid aluminum. Indeed, at home, it is easy to prepare using aluminum foil and a steel galvanized can. It is not that the equipment should alter a cage, it can be anything that covers the electromagnetic pulse.

Many other hacks were seen on the internet like- Put the gear or Mylar Bag in the microwave to be protected from EMP. These all are not good and are only meant for experimental purposes.

Usually, the frequencies for EMP ranges from AM to FM radio. Since AM signals go down to earth till 540 kHz and FM signals stops at 108 MHz. It is not important in knowing these but for an idea, the information has to be known to check how effective is the container that is used for shielding those pulse frequencies by AM/FM radio.

Now that, tune the radio up and down for active FM station, turn the volume up and down and now place that in the Faraday cage that is being used for testing. Identify if the radio is still picked up by the radio station then it is said that situation is in safe condition. Don’t worry these FM signals will not harm and will resist as a shield.

Retest by tuning to the strong frequency station, the low-frequency of AM signals are good in penetrating the objects. If there is no any sound from the AM station and then it can be predicted that the FM signals are good. If else, there are any interrupted signals relatively, it might be a sign that leads to the cause of an EMP explosion.

The effectiveness can also be known by observing and analyzing the Wifi signals on the mobile phone when they are kept in a microwave or Faraday cage. If there are weak signals somehow it can be predictable, but not always. All these might help in rare and the majority of cases of stopping the pulse from EMP, but should be careful.


  1. Test Simulation

An EMP simulator is used to test the effects of engineered equipment and systems easily and is powerful in detecting the effect sooner.


  1. Induced-Pulse Simulation

Induced pulses are less predictable but are practical to create with a lower energy compared to threat pulses. The technique here is to use the reverse current clamp to inject a set of dull signals into the cable that is used for testing. A sodden sine wave is likewise displayed to represent the variety of signals.


  1. Threat Pulse Simulation

Once in a while, the risk pulse itself is repeatable. The pulse might be repeated at low energy level keeping in mind the end goal to describe the reaction preceding damped sine wave infusion, or at high-possibility to reproduce the real danger conditions. A little scale ESD test system might be hand-held.

Room-sized test systems arrive in a scope of outlines, contingent upon the sort and level of risk to be produced. At the best end of the scale, extensive outside test offices joining high-energy EMP test systems have been worked by a few governments. The majority offices can test entire vehicles including boats and airship for their weakness to EMP. Almost these vast EMP test systems uses a specific rendition of generators.


  1. Controlled EMP

Some IT resource air specialist co-ops and PC recyclers use a controlled EMP to wipe such magnetic media.

Most built structures and frameworks require some type of assurance against lightning to be composed in.



The harming impacts of high-energy EMP have prompted the presentation of EMP weapons, from strategic rockets with a little sweep of impact to atomic bombs custom-made for most extreme EMP impact over a wide region.

Henceforth, there have been common strategies and methodologies that are meant to eradicate the explosion happening due to Electromagnetic pulse. There were many investigations and reports about EMP yearly. With the early reports into consideration, plan for the rescues over the huge lightning spark. Thereby reducing the destructions around by saving lots of lives. The above methods and precautions may not completely help in the time of emergency. Because they are meant for knowing the arrival before itself.


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